Hoover's FBI and the Fourth Estate
The Campaign to Control the Press and the Bureau's Image
Sales Date: February 25, 2014
368 Pages, 6.00 x 9.00 in
- Published: February 2014
- Published: February 2014
Winner: AEJMC Book Award
Finalist, Frank Luther Mott-Kappa Tau Alpha Research Award
The Federal Bureau of Investigation was an agency devoted to American ideals, professionalism, and scientific methods, directed by a sage and selfless leader—and anyone who said otherwise was a no-good subversive, bent on discrediting the American way of life. That was the official story, and how J. Edgar Hoover made it stick—running roughshod over those same American ideals—is the story this book tells in full for the first time.
From Hoover’s first tentative media contacts in the 1930s to the Bureau’s eponymous television series in the 1960s and 1970s, FBI officials labored mightily to control the Bureau’s image—efforts that put them not-so-squarely at the forefront of the emerging field of public relations. In the face of any journalistic challenges to the FBI’s legitimacy and operations, Hoover was able to create a benign, even heroic counter narrative, thanks in part to his friends in newsrooms. Matthew Cecil’s own prodigious investigation through hundreds of thousands of pages from FBI files reveals the lengths to which Hoover and his lackeys went to use the press to hoodwink the American people. Even more sobering is how much help he got from so many in the press.
Conservative journalists like broadcaster Fulton Lewis, Jr. and columnist George Sokolsky positioned themselves as “objective” defenders of Hoover’s FBI and were rewarded with access, friendship, and other favors. Some of Hoover’s friends even became adjunct-FBI agents, designated as Special Service Contacts who discreetly gathered information for the Bureau. “Enemies,” on the other hand, were closely monitored and subjected to operations that disrupted their work or even undermined and ended their careers. Noted journalists like I. F. Stone, George Seldes, James A. Wechsler, and many others found themselves the subjects of FBI investigations and, occasionally, named on the Bureau’s “custodial detention index,” targeted for arrest in the case of a national emergency.
With experience as a political reporter, a press secretary, and a scholar and professor of journalism and public relations, Matthew Cecil is uniquely qualified to conduct us through the maze of political intrigue and influence peddling that mark—and often mask—the history of the FBI. His work serves as a cautionary tale about how manipulative government agents and compliant journalists can undermine the very institutions and ideals they are tasked with protecting.
"In the present day, when Edward Snowden’s journalistic salvo has exposed the National Security Agency for peering over every digital shoulder, Hoover’s FBI offers key insights into the origins of the still contentious boundaries between the members of the Fourth Estate and the modern police state that Hoover began to build 90 years ago."—Annals of Iowa
"Ultimately, as a history book, Hoover’s FBI and the Fourth Estate should be required for all young and aspiring journalists. Just as Hoover and the FBI used journalists to burnish a public image that lasted for decades, so too are today’s reporters subject to similar forces, especially inside access to get the story. Let us hope history does not repeat itself here."—Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly
“A rare book—enormously entertaining and scrupulous scholarship. A major contribution to our understanding of J. Edgar Hoover, America’s modern-day Machiavelli. Cecil has the facts behind the FBI legend, and they are fascinating.”—Tim Weiner, author of Enemies: A History of the FBI
“Matthew Cecil’s thoughtful and well researched monograph convincingly documents the covert and sophisticated efforts of Hoover’s FBI both to promote a positive image and to immunize the FBI from legitimate criticisms of its abusive practices. His study is a primer for our time—highlighting the dangers to civil liberties and democratic values posed by secretive and effectively unaccountable intelligence agencies.”—Athan Theoharis, author of The FBI and American Democracy: A Brief Critical History
“Matthew Cecil has dug up important and original new evidence about the malignant propaganda apparatus wielded by J. Edgar Hoover, who for decades flattered, cajoled and intimidated America’s media establishment into shamelessly exaggerating FBI exploits and hiding its criminal abuses. The author’s painstaking review of tens of thousands of FBI documents demonstrates that while the nation’s top editors and reporters cravenly competed to become Hoover’s hagiographic handmaidens, the handful of journalists brave enough to challenge the FBI were viciously targeted for retribution by America’s most powerful law enforcement agency. Hoover’s FBI and the Fourth Estate is detached and fair-minded scholarship but doesn't shrink from the inevitable conclusion that it was Hoover who was the true threat to U.S. democracy. At a time when our government is once again asking us to trust it with unparalleled spying powers, this book provides an urgent and timely warning of the perils of unchecked police power—and the need for vigorous watchdog journalism to expose it. Anyone who cares about civil liberties should read this disturbing reminder of what can go wrong.”—Mark Feldstein, author of Poisoning the Press: Richard Nixon, Jack Anderson, and the Rise of Washington’s Scandal Culture
“A very strong and well written study on a topic that has never been explored at any great length and is thus a significant contribution to our understanding of the history of Hoover’s FBI.”—Douglas M. Charles, author of FBI’s Obscene File: J. Edgar Hoover and the Bureau’s Crusade against Smut
“Cecil takes a long overdue look at one of the pillars in the FBI temple J. Edgar Hoover built . . . the director’s shrewd use of and manipulation of the press. Should be on the shelf of anyone interested in the Bureau’s history.”—Max Holland, author of Leak: Why Mark Felt Became Deep Throat
List of Illustrations
1. The FBI’s Ongoing Crisis of Legitimacy
2. A Bureau Built for Public Relations
3. Enforcing the Bureau’s Image of Restraint
4. Silencing a “Useful Citizen”
5. Investigating Critics on the Left
6. Dividing the Press
7. Engaging Defenders in the Press
8. Corresponding with Friends in the Press
9. Managing Friends in the Broadcast Media
10. Renewing the FBI Story in Bureau-Authorized Books
11. Building a Television Audience