Black Social Capital
The Politics of School Reform in Baltimore, 1986-1999
Sales Date: October 28, 1999
256 Pages, 6.00 x 9.00 in
- Published: October 1999
Deindustrialization, white flight, and inner city poverty have spelled trouble for Baltimore schools. Marion Orr now examines why school reform has been difficult to achieve there, revealing the struggles of civic leaders and the limitations placed on Baltimore’s African-American community as each has tried to rescue a failing school system.
Examining the interplay between government and society, Orr presents the first systematic analysis of social capital both within the African-American community (“black social capital”) and outside it where social capital crosses racial lines. Orr shows that while black social capital may have created solidarity against white domination in Baltimore, it hampered African-American leaders’ capacity to enlist the cooperation from white corporate elites and suburban residents needed for school reform.
Orr examines social capital at the neighborhood level, in elite-level interactions, and in intergovernmental relations to argue that black social capital doesn’t necessarily translate into the kind of intergroup coalition needed to bring about school reform. He also includes an extensive historical survey of the black community, showing how distrust engendered by past black experiences has hampered the formation of significant intergroup social capital.
The book features case studies of school reform activity, including the first analysis of the politics surrounding Baltimore’s decision to hire a private, for-profit firm to operate nine of its public schools. These cases illuminate the paradoxical aspects of black social capital in citywide school reform while offering critical perspectives on current debates about privatization, site-based management, and other reform alternatives.
Orr’s book challenges those who argue that social capital alone can solve fundamentally political problems by purely social means and questions the efficacy of either privatization or black community power to reform urban schools. Black Social Capital offers a cogent conceptual synthesis of social capital theory and urban regime theory that demonstrates the importance of government, politics, and leadership in converting social capital into a resource that can be mobilized for effective social change.
"Among the book’s strengths are its treatment of many subjects of interest, including race, poverty, city politics, and black politics."—Perspectives on Political Science
"A significant contribution to the growing literature on the politics of urban education. School reform advocates who embrace privatization as a panacea or who think social capital by itself should cure what ails our urban public schools will think twice after they read this important book."—Richard DeLeon, author of Left Coast City: Progressive Politics in San Francisco, 1975–1991
"An impressive and important piece of work that should be adopted not only in political science and urban politics but also in history, sociology, and education courses." —Dianne Pinderhughes, author of Race and Ethnicity in Chicago Politics
List of Tables and Illustrations
Preface and Acknowledgments
1. Social Capital, Urban Regimes, and School Reform
2. The Formation of Black Social Capital in Baltimore
3. Patronage Culture and the Politics of Biracial Cooperation
4. The Political Economy and City Schools, 1950-1990
5. School Reform Through Site-based Management
6. Neighborhood Mobilization: The Barclay and Stadium School Movements
7. Civic Elites and the Baltimore Commonwealth
8. The Defeat of Private Management
9. School Reform and the City-State Connection
10. Lessons from the Baltimore Experience