White Man's Wicked Water
The Alcohol Trade and Prohibition in Indian Country, 1802-1892
William E. Unrau
"The inordinate indulgence of Indians in spiritous liquors is one of the most deplorable consequences which has resulted from their intercourse with civilized man."—Governor Lewis Cass, Michigan Territory, 1827
"Often I have been compelled to ask myself, 'Who is the civilized and who is the savage?' Their principal vices are emphatically our vices. If they get drunk it is upon our whiskey. . . . [A]nd yet we claim to be 'civilized' and freely deal out to them the epithet 'savage.'"—The Reverend William H. Goode, reflecting on his early 19th-century sojourn in Indian Country
“A masterful introduction to the workings of one corner of federal Indian policy.”
—Journal of the Early Republic
“This monograph stands as a valuable contribution for understanding the motivations of the U.S. government and its citizens in promulgating and prohibiting alcohol use among Native Americans.”
—Western Historical QuarterlySee all reviews...
“In a succinct, well-written narrative, Unrau recounts the devastating role that intoxicants played in the ‘winning’ of the West, describing in detail the failure of governmental prohibition efforts, the inept frontier judicial systems, and the methods of opportunistic liquor peddlers.”
“Unrau provides an important contribution to the study of Indian policy and reform in the trans-Missouri frontier.”
—Annals of Iowa
“From a political and economic standpoint, this book offers important information on how, working together, federal regulation and predominantly non-Indian private trade shaped the context of alcohol problems in Indian country.”
—Great Plains Quarterly
“Unrau draws upon an impressive array of Indian petitions, official reports, court records, and treaties to show how the West was really won. This detailed chronicle offers abundant evidence that alcohol both encouraged white conquest and destroyed native Americans.”
—W. J. Rorabaugh, author of The Alcoholic Republic: An American Tradition
“Indian alcoholism is a subject fraught with myths and stereotypical images. White Man's Wicked Water offers relief from this unhappy landscape by cataloguing the weakness, greed, and legal shenanigans that defeated prohibition efforts throughout the nineteenth century.”
—Frederick E. Hoxie, author of A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880–1920
“An excellent analysis of the impact of alcohol upon Native American communities in the nineteenth century. Unrau explores and documents the problems associated with one of the darker sides of acculturation or accommodation. His study also illustrates the impact of Native American drinking patterns on the development and implementation of American Indian policy.”
—R. David Edmonds, author of The Shawnee ProphetSee fewer reviews...
In White Man's Wicked Water, Unrau tells the compelling story of how an alcohol-sodden society introduced drink to the Indians. That same society then instituted futile policies to control the flow of alcohol to tribes who, as one superintendent put it, "have not the moral force to resist temptation." Unrau dispels that racial-deficiency theory and debunks the belief that prohibition was carried out by well-intended reformers.
Unrau shows that, contrary to the perniciously false image of the innately "depraved savage," Indians actually learned their "uncivil" behavior by emulating—in hopes of accommodating—"civilized" men. Indian inebriation in the nineteenth century, he shows, essentially mimicked the habits of white Americans who-spurred on by prevailing attitudes and federal law-were aspiring to integrate the natives into the cultural mainstream. Prohibition zealots, intent upon soothing white anxieties, were far more concerned with this goal than with stemming the flow of alcohol.
Scholars have often viewed the sale of alcohol to Native Americans as a ploy by Euro-Americans to trick them into unfair land and trade deals. But Unrau makes it clear that alcoholic consumption by Native Americans was the inevitable consequence of cultural confluence, not of conscious white subversion.
To support his arguments, Unrau has closely examined previously neglected records pertaining to illicit alcohol trafficking, its tie to the land-cession/annuity-distribution system, and the influence of federal subsidy to non-Indian, western development. From these sources, he provides surprising new insights into alcohol use and abuse in relation to Indian removal. Unrau also sheds new light on nineteenth-century prohibition attempts in the trans-Missouri West (primarily Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma) up to the absolutist prohibition law of 1892.